How Does Interest Rate Work On A Loan? - LBC Capital Income Fund, LLC
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How Does Interest Rate Work On A Loan?

interest rates on a loan

There would be no lending or borrowing economy without interest rates. The interest rate you pay can significantly impact the overall cost of any loan, whether you’re getting a mortgage for a home, a personal loan for a significant purchase, or a car loan. It is crucial to comprehend the inner workings of interest rates if you want to make intelligent financial decisions and avoid paying more than necessary for your loan. This article will discuss how interest rates are determined, their effect on your loan’s total cost, what increases your total loan balance, and more. 

Real estate loans market overview

Investors and businesses rely heavily on the real estate loan market when financing the purchase, development, or improvement of real estate properties. There is a vast variety of loans available in this market, from home equity lines of credit to bridge loans to refinancing options.

Commercial real estate loans are for businesses that want to buy, build, or refinance commercial properties, including hotels, malls, office buildings, and apartment complexes. In contrast, residential real estate loans are for individuals who want to buy or refinance a single-family home.

Lenders commonly take a lien on the property as collateral for loans based on its appraised value or purchase price. A variety of factors, such as the status of the economy, the situation of the real estate market, and government policy, affect the interest rates on real estate loans.

Banks, mortgage companies, and other financial organizations often provide real estate loans, and the risk of each loan is determined through a mix of underwriting requirements, credit checks, and property evaluations.

Overall, the real estate loan market is vital because it ensures that people and businesses can access the capital they need to acquire, develop, and upgrade real estate properties.

What does an interest rate mean?

The cost of borrowing money stated as a percentage of the loaned sum is known as the interest rate. It’s the cost the lender imposes on the borrower for the privilege of borrowing money. The interest rate is the primary factor in calculating the total amount of money that the borrower must repay, including principal and interest.

If you borrow $100,000 at 5% interest, you will spend an extra $5,000 over the life of the loan (not including any additional fees). The cost of borrowing money increases as the interest rate rises, and likewise, the cost decreases as the interest rate falls. There are two basic types of interest rates: fixed, which do not fluctuate throughout the life of the loan, and adjustable, which do alter over time depending on a number of criteria.

Watch the video by Boris Dorfman, CEO of LBC Capital Income Fund, LLC Income Fund, on how interest rates work to understand the topic more deeply.

How do banks calculate interest rates?

When determining loan interest rates, banks take numerous things into account. Now, let’s examine a few of these factors in greater detail:

  • Cost of Funds

Banks must cover their own cost of funds when setting interest rates. This includes the interest they pay on deposits and the cost of issuing bonds to raise capital. The higher the cost of funds, the higher the interest rate a bank will need to offer on loans to ensure it makes a profit.

  • Competition

Banks also consider the competitive landscape when setting interest rates. If there is high competition among lenders, banks may be more likely to offer lower interest rates to attract borrowers.

  • Economic Conditions

The state of the economy also has an impact on interest rates. If the economy is strong and growing, banks may feel more confident about lending and may offer higher interest rates. Conversely, if the economy is weak, banks may be more cautious and may offer lower interest rates.

  • Monetary Policy

Monetary policy, such as changes in the federal funds rate set by the Federal Reserve, can also affect interest rates. When the federal funds rate goes up, interest rates for consumers usually go up as well because banks may pass on the higher cost of funds to their customers.

  • Risk

The risk associated with a loan is also a factor in determining the interest rate. If a borrower has a good credit score, a stable income, and a low debt-to-income ratio, the loan is generally considered less risky, and the interest rate offered may be lower. On the other hand, if the loan is thought to be risky, the interest rate may be higher to make up for the risk.

  • Internal policies

Finally, banks also consider their own internal policies and risk management strategies when setting interest rates. For example, a bank may have a policy of offering lower interest rates to borrowers with good credit scores to reduce its overall risk.

It’s important to remember that interest rates can vary significantly from one lender to the next, so it’s in the best interest of borrowers to shop around for the best possible terms. Borrowers should regularly examine rates to ensure they are getting the best deal and keep in mind that the factors affecting interest rates can shift over time.

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What increases your total loan balance?

Several factors can increase your total loan balance:


The cost of borrowing money, known as interest, is calculated as a fixed rate multiplied by the outstanding loan balance. Over time, interest builds up and is added to the principal debt, so the total amount owed goes up.


Other charges may be associated with your loan, such as an origination fee, prepayment penalty, late payment charge, etc. These costs are tacked onto the outstanding loan balance and drive up the total cost of borrowing money.

Capitalization of Interest

Capitalization of interest refers to the practice of adding the interest accrued during a loan’s deferment or forbearance period to the principal sum. This leads to a greater outstanding loan balance and, thus, higher interest fees.

Missed Payments

If you are late making a loan payment, a late charge may be added to your loan balance, making the total amount owed grow. And if the loan goes into default because of nonpayment, the lender can take legal action to get their money back. This may cause the loan balance to increase with the inclusion of late penalties and interest.


Refinancing a loan can result in a higher loan balance if you choose to add the closing costs or fees to the loan balance instead of paying them upfront.

To keep tabs on your loan balance, it’s vital that you have a firm grasp of these concepts and maintain a regular check of your loan statement. Making payments on schedule and avoiding fees can assist in keeping the loan balance from ballooning out of control.

Why do banks increase rates?


Interest rates are similarly susceptible to the effects of inflation. Banks may increase interest rates during periods of high inflation to offset the effect of the currency’s depreciation on consumers’ purchasing power. By doing so, the loan’s real value is more likely to remain constant over time despite price increases.

Regulatory Environment

Interest rates may be affected by the prevailing regulatory climate. Lending costs for banks may rise due to new rules, such as those that require more capital or limit access to certain types of loans. Banks may decide to boost interest rates to deal with these rising expenses.

Economic Conditions

The economy’s health is another factor that can affect interest rates. Interest rates may rise if the economy is healthy and thriving, as banks will feel more confident in making loans. But if the economy isn’t doing well or is in a recession, banks may be less likely to lend money and may instead lower interest rates to boost spending and business.

Monetary Policy

Interest rates may be affected by monetary policy shifts as well. The Federal Reserve can affect interest rates by adjusting the federal funds rate, the rate at which banks lend to each other. If the Fed raises the federal funds rate, banks will likely boost their interest rates to compensate.

Cost of Funds

Interest paid on deposits and bond issuance costs are two examples of the cost of money that banks must cover. When borrowing money costs go up, the lending institution may increase interest rates to maintain a healthy profit margin. If the cost of borrowing from the Federal Reserve goes up, for instance, banks may decide to charge their clients a higher interest rate.

The Bottom Line

At the end of the day, anyone considering getting a loan needs to know how interest rates work. There is a direct correlation between the interest rate and the overall cost of a loan because interest is added to the principle. Shopping around for the cheapest interest rate on a loan is crucial by comparing offers from many lenders. Interest rates can be affected by the lender’s cost of funds, the state of the economy, monetary policy, competition, inflation, and the regulatory climate. Choosing a loan with a fixed interest rate, making additional payments, or refinancing to a lower rate can help cushion the blow of fluctuating interest rates on your monthly payments. Knowing the ins and outs of interest rates will help you make better financial decisions and keep you from paying too much for your loan.

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